Nargis Fakhri Birthday and Unknown Facts: Nargis Fakhri's revelations surprised everyone.

 Nargis Fakhri Birthday and Unknown Facts: Actress Nargis Fakhri, who made her Bollywood debut with Ranbir Kapoor's film 'Rockstar', had made a name for herself in the film world in a very short time. Nargis has been away from the film world for some time now. Nargis, who debuted under the big banner, did not do anything special, but her beauty was discussed a lot. Today is the birthday of this actress (Nargis Fakhri Birthday). 




Born on 20 October 1979 in New York, Nargis Fakhri's father's name is late Mohammad Fakhri. He belonged to Pakistan. His mother's name is Mary. Fakhri's parents separated when she was just 6 years old.

 

Dussehra special: Ravana is worshiped somewhere, somewhere else celebrates Dussehra for 75 days

 Somewhere Ravana is worshipped, somewhere else celebrates Dussehra for 75 days.

Dussehra i.e., Vijayadashami is an important festival of Hindus. It is celebrated on the tenth day of Shukla Paksha of Ashwin month. It is believed that Lord Rama killed Ravana on this day. It is also celebrated as the victory of truth over falsehood. This Dashami is known as Vijayadashami. Generally in India, the tradition of burning the effigy of Ravana is prevalent on this day. But there are many places where this day is celebrated in a completely different way. Somewhere like mourning, Dussehra is celebrated for 75 days without burning the effigy of Ravana. Let us know about some such unique traditions.

Bastar: Celebrate Dussehra here for 75 days 

In Bastar, Chhattisgarh, people consider Dussehra to be a festival dedicated to the worship of Mother Danteshwari, not considering Ram's victory over Ravana. Danteshwari Mata is the adorable goddess of the residents of Bastar region, who is a form of Durga. Here this festival lasts for 75 days. Dussehra lasts from the new moon of the month of Sawan till the Shukla Trayodashi of the month of Ashwin.

 On the first day, which is called Kachin Gadi, permission is taken from the goddess to start the ceremony. The goddess is seated on a set of thorns, which is called Kachin Gadi. This girl belongs to a scheduled tribe, from which the people of the royal family of Bastar take permission. This ceremony started around the 15th century. This is followed by Jogi-sitting, followed by Raini (Vijayadashmi) inside and Raini (Rath Yatra) outside and finally Muriya Darbar. It ends with the Ohadi festival on Ashwin Shukla Trayodashi. A large number of people come from abroad to see this Dussehra of Bastar.

 

Baijnath town: Ravana's effigies are not burnt here

It is believed in Baijnath town of Himachal Pradesh that here Ravana had done severe penance for Lord Shiva for years. Along with this, it is also believed that Ravana passed through Baijnath town for Lanka carrying Shivling. There is no temple of Ravana here, but this temple present along with the town attracts tourists. The effigies of Ravana are not burnt here.

 

Lankeshwar Festival is held in Kolar


 
During the Lankeshwar festival in Kolar, Karnataka, a procession is taken out along with the worship of Ravana. The idol of Lord Shiva is also rotated along with Ravana in the procession. It is believed that Ravana is worshiped here because of Ravana being the supreme devotee of Lord Shiva. There is also a temple of Ravana in Malavalli tehsil in Mandaya district for Kolar.

Mandsaur and Vidisha, where blessings are taken from Ravana on auspicious occasions.


 Mandodari is believed to be the birth place of Vidisha in Madhya Pradesh. On the day of Dussehra, people worship the 10 feet tall statue of Ravana present here. Along with this, on auspicious occasions like weddings, take the blessings of this idol.

Like Vidisha, Ravana is also worshiped in Mandsaur. The temple present at this place is considered to be the first temple of Ravana built in Madhya Pradesh. There is also a huge idol of Ravana named Ravana Rundi, which is worshipped. Women come out of this idol wearing a veil from the front. It is believed that this place was named Mandsaur after the name of Mandodari.

 

Takes  mourning on the day of Dussehra in Mandore


 
Mandore located in Jodhpur, Rajasthan is considered to be the in-laws of Ravana. Here Ravana's first wife Mandodari is considered as a daughter. Apart from this, the people of Shrimali Brahmin society present here worship Ravana's Kuldevi Kharnana and call themselves the descendants of Ravana. There is also a temple of Ravana and Mandodari in Mandore. Due to the death of Ravana on the day of Dussehra and the widow of Mandodari, the people here mourn on the day of Dussehra.

 



Chris Gayle on the verge of making big history

 If the opinions expressed by the sports pundits across the world are to be believed, Chris Gayle is all set to create history in the ensuing T20 World Cup.

T20 World Cup 2021 is starting from Sunday. West Indies captain Kieron Pollard has said a tremendous thing about Chris Gayle.

 


 

West Indies have won the T20 World Cup twice West Indies' defending champion Havindee will be eyeing the third title

Kieron Pollard on Chris Gayle: T20 World Cup 2021 is starting from today. Before the start of the tournament, West Indies captain Kieron Pollard has given a statement about Chris Gayle, popularly known as 'Universe Boss'. Pollard has praised Gayle as one of the most powerful batsmen in the world. The captain has said that there are no words to describe what Gayle has done for the country.

 

Let us tell you that Gayle has a dominance in T20 cricket. He has scored 14261 runs in the shortest format after playing 446 matches at a strike rate of 145.87. At the same time, Gayle has scored 1854 runs in 74 T20 Internationals for West Indies at a strike rate of 139.19.

Gayle on the verge of making big history

 

Gayle is on the verge of making big history in the T20 World Cup. In fact, Gayle is just 97 runs away from becoming the highest run-scorer in the T20 World Cup. He has played 28 matches in the tournament so far and has added 920 runs. At the same time, the highest run-scorer in the T20 World Cup is former Sri Lankan captain Mahela Jayawardene (1016 in 31 matches).

 "There are no words to describe what Gayle has done in the World Cup, T20 World Cup and T20 cricket across the world," Pollard said. Pollard further said, 'Gayle is the player to hit the most sixes and score the most runs (in T20 cricket). The way he creates fear in the bowlers, the answer is no. He is 97 runs away but he may not be thinking about it. His and our main target is to win the T20 World Cup. He must have been thinking about this. We are sure he will do well.

 

 

West Indies' first clash with England

It is worth noting that the qualifier matches will be played from Sunday to 22 October. After this, the title clash between the teams will start. West Indies team will start their campaign in the tournament on 23 October. West Indies are in Group 1 and their first match will be against England. West Indies team is the defending champion. He won the title in the year 2016 by defeating England. Apart from this, Windies won the T20 World Cup trophy in 2012 by defeating Sri Lanka.

 

T20 World Cup 2021: Michael Vaughan told the hearts of crores of Indians about MS Dhoni

 Michael Vaughan on MS Dhoni: Former Indian captain MS Dhoni will be in the role of Team India's mentor in the T20 World Cup 2021. Dhoni is one of the successful captains.

 T20 World Cup 2021 is starting from Sunday, in this World Cup, MS Dhoni will be the mentor of the Indian team, the campaign of the Indian team will start from October 24.


Veteran cricketer MS Dhoni is counted among the most successful captains in the world. He is the only captain in the world to have won the T20 World Cup (2007), the ODI World Cup (2011) and the Champions Trophy (2013). Dhoni, who retired from international cricket last year, will be seen in the role of mentor (guide) of Team India in the T20 World Cup 2021.However, former England captain Michael Vaughan is not very happy with Dhoni becoming the mentor of the Indian team. In fact, Vaughan wants to see Dhoni as a player in the T20 World Cup instead of a mentor like millions of Indians.

 

 

 

Vaughan Stole  the heart of crores of Indians

 

 

Let us tell you that Dhoni-led Chennai Super Kings (CSK) recently won the title of IPL 2021. Chennai defeated Kolkata Knight Riders (KKR) by 27 runs in the final match. Dhoni has made CSK the champion for the fourth time. Michael Vaughan spoke the heart of crores of Indians after CSK won the trophy. The former English captain wrote on Twitter that Dhoni should play in the T20 World Cup as a player of the Indian team instead of playing as a tor. Vaughan wrote so much as well as added two funny emojis.

 

 

Captain Kohli happy with Dhoni becoming mentor

Captain Virat Kohli expressed happiness over Dhoni being appointed as the mentor of Team India. Kohli said in a media session organized by the ICC, 'He has immense experience. He himself is thrilled. He has always been a mentor for all of us. The youngsters playing such a big tournament at the very beginning of their career will get a lot of benefit. Virat said, 'His look at the complex details and practical advice will help us to improve the game by a percentage or two.I am very happy with his arrival. His presence will boost both morale and confidence. Significantly, the Indian team will start its campaign in the tournament against  Pakistan on October 24.

Delhi Ncr Rains: Rain in Delhi-NCR, changed weather-shadow dark, heavy rain in Noida

 It is raining in Delhi-NCR. It has rained heavily in Noida. On Sunday morning, the India Meteorological Department said that during the next 2 hours, thunderstorms with light to moderate intensity would continue at many places over Delhi and Noida and in adjoining areas. It rained so heavily in Noida that it was completely dark for some time.

Parts of Delhi received rain on Sunday morning with the minimum temperature at 23.5 degrees Celsius, four notches above normal. On Saturday, the maximum temperature was recorded at 35.5 degrees Celsius, three notches above normal while the minimum temperature was 20 degrees Celsius.

 


At the same time, it is raining heavily in Kerala. The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) has issued a yellow alert for heavy rains in 11 districts of Kerala namely Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Pathanamthitta, Kottayam, Alappuzha, Ernakulam, Idukki, Thrissur, Palakkad, Malappuram and Kozhikode. Indian Air Force informed that medium-lift helicopters have been inducted for relief operations in the flood-affected districts of Kerala.

 

Union Home Minister Amit Shah said that in view of heavy rains and floods, we are monitoring the situation in some parts of Kerala. The central government will do everything possible to help the needy people. NDRF teams have already been dispatched to assist in the rescue operations. Praying for everyone's safety. The death toll in Kerala in separate incidents has risen to 11. Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan said that people have been requested to take all precautions to avoid rain. 105 relief camps have been set up across the state Arrangements have been made to start more camps.

Virat Kohli’s Big Statement before India-Pak Match

 T20 World Cup: Virat Kohli's statement about India-Pakistan match, ticket prices are touching the sky

 

 

Team India captain Virat Kohli has expressed his opinion about the great match between India and Pakistan to be held on October 24 in the T20 World Cup 2021.

 


 

Virat Kohli, who is taking over the captaincy of India's T20 team for the last time, has given a statement regarding the match with Pakistan on October 24.

Dubai: After the successful completion of IPL, the T20 World Cup 2021 in UAE and Oman is going to start from Sunday, October 17. The eyes of the whole world are fixed on the great match between India and Pakistan to be played in Dubai on 24 October. In such a situation, just a day before the start of the World Cup, Virat has expressed his opinion about this match.

Virat Kohli, who has announced to quit the captaincy of the shortest format after the T20 World Cup, has expressed his opinion about the match between India and Pakistan for the first time. During an interview with Virat, when asked whether the India-Pakistan match will be the most important for the Indian team during the World Cup, he replied that we will take this match like a match with other teams.

 

 

I never had a different experience in India-Pakistan match

Virat said, I can express my opinion on the basis of personal experience, I have not felt anything different in India-Pakistan match till date. Every time I took this match like another match of cricket. I am well aware that a different atmosphere has been created for this match. The same is happening with the sale of tickets for this match. The demand for tickets for this match is very high. That's all I know because my friends are asking me Whether tickets are left for this match or not and I am answering them in no. This is just one of the reasons why I am feeling different.

 

Will take this match as normal as possible

Virat further said, for us it is just like other matches which should be played properly, we are well aware of how to do that. The atmosphere is definitely different for this match in terms of the spectators outside, it will have a different kind of pace. But in terms of players, it is not like that, we will take this match as a professional player as we always do in every match. As far as possible, we will try to take this match as normal as possible.


The ticket prices of Mahamuqabale are touching the sky

The demand for tickets for the great match between India and Pakistan to be played at the Dubai International Stadium is very high. All the tickets for this match were sold out within a few hours. Due to Corona, only 70 percent of the seats of the stadium with a capacity of 25 thousand spectators can be filled. Thus, a total of 18,500 seats were available for sale. The premium tickets for this match were sold for dirhams 1,500 (approximately Rs 30,000) and platinum tickets for dirhams 2,600 (approximately Rs 52,500). There was no clear information about the price of normal tickets, but its cost was about 5 thousand rupees ($ 70). Although officially the ticket is no longer available.

 

 

5 Indian-origin cricketers who will shine for other teams in T20 World Cup 2021

 Indian Origin Cricketers in T20 World Cup 2021: T20 World Cup 2021 is starting from today. The tournament will see several Indian-origin cricketers playing for other teams.

 

T20 World Cup 2021 is starting from Sunday, the tournament is being organized in UAE-Oman, a total of 16 teams are participating in this T20 World Cup.

Indian Origin Cricketers in T20 World Cup 2021: The ICC T20 World Cup 2021 is starting from Sunday. The tournament is being hosted by the BCCI in Oman and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The World Cup was earlier to be held in India, but was shifted due to the Corona epidemic. 16 teams will fight for the title in the tournament. Let us tell you that in the current edition of T20 World Cup, 5 Indian-origin cricketers will spread their flames for other teams. Let's know who are these players.

 

Simi Singh


Simi Singh will play for Ireland in T20 World Cup 2021. He is the only Indian-origin cricketer in the Ireland team. Batting all-rounder Simi had done well recently against South Africa and now he will be looking to show his stamina in the World Cup.

 

 

Sandeep Gaur

Medium pace bowling all-rounder Sandeep Gaur was born in Hyderabad, India. However, he will play for Oman in the T20 World Cup 2021. He has played 15 T20 Internationals so far in his career and has taken 48 wickets in his bag.

 

Suraj Kumar

 

Punjab born Suraj Kumar will also play for Oman. Suraj is a right handed batsman born in Punjab. The 32-year-old batsman has played 17 ODIs and 16 T20 Internationals so far. He has scored 302 runs in ODIs and 105 runs in T20s.

 

India-born leg spin bowler Ish Sodhi will play for New Zealand in the T20 World Cup 2021. Sodhi bowled brilliantly against India in the last edition of the T20 World Cup. The leg-spinner has taken 73 wickets in 57 T20 Internationals with an economy rate of 8.07 and an average of 21.73.

Jatinder Singh

 India-born Jatinder Singh will also be seen donning an Oman jersey. He is a right handed batsman. Jatinder has played 19 ODIs and 28 T20 Internationals. He added 434 runs in ODIs at an average of 24.11 while in T20Is he scored 697 runs at an average of 27.88.

Hit List: Conspiracy to shake India! Terrorists have prepared a hit list of 200 people, intelligence agency alert

 Hit list of 200 people: After the recent attacks on Kashmiri Pandits and non-Muslims in Jammu and Kashmir, an alert has come to the fore that such attacks are being planned to intensify in the coming days.


ISI recently met leaders of many terrorist organizations in PoK, according to the alert, ISI has prepared a hit list of 200 people, from Kashmiri Pandits, politicians, media persons, industrialists to non-local people.

Indian intelligence agencies have been alerted about the formation of a new terrorist organization by Pakistan-based groups, Pakistan's intelligence agency ISI is planning a big conspiracy against India Pakistan's terrorist groups are engaged in the exercise of forming a new terrorist organization in Kashmir ,

 

According to an alert, ISI has prepared a hit list of 200 people.

 

Indian intelligence agencies have been alerted about this. It is being claimed that 200 people are included in its hit list, ranging from Kashmiri Pandits, politicians, media persons, industrialists to non-local people. A new mask terrorist organization is being formed under this conspiracy is being hatched against them.

 

 

The names of many Kashmiri Pandits are included in this list.

According to the alert, the ISI has prepared a hit list of 200 people, whose killing can create tension in the Kashmir Valley, allegedly the names of many Kashmiri Pandits are included in this list.

 

ISI met leaders of many terrorist organizations in PoK

According to media reports, Pakistan's intelligence agency ISI has recently met leaders of several terrorist organizations in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK) and asked them to carry out more attacks in Jammu and Kashmir, in which Kashmiri Pandits and non-Muslims are attacked. Have been asked to target. It may be noted that last year, the ISI had started a front organization called The Resistance Front (TRF) for Lashkar-e-Taiba, which currently takes responsibility for most of the attacks in Kashmir.

Why Pakistan's economy is collapsing under Imran Khan's rule?

 According to the data released by the Statistics Department of Pakistan, in the first quarter of the current financial year, the Foreign Trade Department has faced a hundred percent trade deficit.

The Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government had announced a reduction in the country's imports to reduce the trade deficit and the country's current account deficit.

Although the PTI government managed to reduce this deficit slightly in the last financial year, the beginning of the current financial year has seen a huge increase in imports, which is increasing the trade deficit.

According to experts, the increasing trade deficit is a dangerous sign for the national economy as this deficit has a negative impact on the exchange rate by widening the current account deficit, which has a direct negative effect on the value of the rupee against the dollar.

 

The domestic currency is currently under a lot of pressure against the dollar, one of the main reasons for the increase in the demand for dollars due to the increase in the import bill, while on the other hand the country's exports have seen very little growth.

Experts say that the huge increase in the country's imports in the first quarter of the current financial year and the increasing trade deficit due to it is dangerous. He says that this is a 'red zone' for the country's economy. 


Foreign trade department

According to government data, the trade deficit which was $5.8 billion in the first quarter of last year has increased to $11.6 billion this year.

Imports during the first quarter of this year from July to September amounted to $18.63 billion from $11.2 billion in the same period last year, an increase of over 65 percent.

On the other hand, the country's exports also increased, but this increase is 27 percent. In the first quarter of last year, exports were $5.47 billion, which is $6.9 billion in this year's quarter.

Remember that in the last financial year of the previous government, the country's trade deficit had reached a record level, at that time it had exceeded 37 billion dollars.

The PTI government started reducing it gradually. This deficit was $ 31 billion in the first fiscal year of this government and $ 23 billion in the second financial year.

However, this trend of deficit reduction could not continue and in the third fiscal year ending June 30, 2021 of the current government, this deficit once again reached $ 30 billion and it is increasing continuously.


 What is Pakistan importing?

If we look at the goods imported into Pakistan, it has seen a huge increase in the import of food items, oil products, vehicles and machinery.

If we look at the goods imported in the current financial year, in terms of products, only 66 thousand metric tonnes of sugar has been imported in the month of August, whereas in the month of August last year only 917 metric tonnes of sugar was imported.

Similarly, wheat imports have increased by over 70 per cent, while palm oil imports have increased by 120 per cent.

There has been an increase of 84 percent in the import of pulses and 24% in the import of tea in the country.

On the other hand, oil products grew by about 128 percent. There has been an increase of more than 200 percent in the import of vehicles. Similarly, the import of machinery has also increased. In the first quarter of the current financial year, imports have also increased due to the corona vaccine.


 What is the reason for such increase in imports?

Economist Khurram Shahzad said about the increase in imports that the increase in imports was due to higher consumption of food and energy oil products as well as food items, machinery and vehicles.

He says, "The resources and production at the local level are not enough to meet the demand for these goods, so Pakistan has to import."

Khurram Shahzad said that the second main reason for this is also that the country's exports did not increase in such a way that it could reduce the trade deficit arising from excessive imports.

"One of the reasons for over-consumption is that when sources of income increase, consumption also increases."

He has described consumption as good, but at the same time he also said that if it is met by imported goods, then the country has to bear the loss in the form of trade deficit.


 Economist Dr Farooq Salim, while talking to BBC Urdu about this, said that the increase in the import bill has been due to increase in food items as well as machinery, vehicles and oil products. He also says that the income of Pakistanis has not increased, but they are spending more.

He said that since 2018 till now, there has been a decrease in the per capita income of Pakistanis, which was $ 1482 at that time, now it has come down to $ 1190.

Dr Farooq says that the lack of growth in exports is the main reason for the increasing trade deficit. He said that the government had celebrated exports of $ 31 billion in the last financial year, but in the financial year 2013-14, the same exports happened and after that it started declining.

He says, "If we look at the then and today's value of the dollar, it means that Pakistan has not made any development in exports."

He said, “If we are importing even palm oil, wheat and sugar, it means that the trade deficit is going to widen. Along with this, the textile sector is being encouraged to import more machinery which every few years. This is a temporary solution, but it is not a permanent solution.


 He also rejected the notion that a large proportion of food imported into Pakistan is being smuggled into Afghanistan, leading to additional imports. He further said that now people in Afghanistan do not have enough purchasing power to buy the expensive things smuggled.

Dr Farooq said that at present Pakistan is benefiting due to remittance (money coming from outside), otherwise the speed with which the trade deficit is increasing can greatly spoil the current account deficit of Pakistan.

He said that the State Bank of Pakistan has imposed 100 percent cash margin on many imported products, but despite this the import cannot be stopped because even if the price is high, the consumption of essential commodities will continue.

When Razzaq Dawood, Adviser on Trade Affairs to the Prime Minister of Pakistan was contacted to inquire about his stand on the widening trade deficit due to increase in imports, he said that why imports increased is a complex issue and he is currently in the meeting, He will contact himself later, but he did not contact again in this regard.

Dr Farooq Saleem described the country's growing trade deficit as a 'red zone' and said that due to this the country gets caught in a 'vicious cycle' as the increasing trade deficit widens the current account deficit, which causes the exchange rate and currency to fall. and poverty increases due to work level of income in the country.

He said, "All the claims of the PTI government to reduce the trade deficit are only on social media and this may be their wish, but in practice they do not have any strong strategy. This can be judged by looking at the results. It is about how successful the government is on which front and these results are telling that this government does not have any strategy to reduce the trade deficit.


 He said that if the trade deficit is about $ 12 billion in just three months, then it can be estimated how much the trade deficit can be at the end of the year.

Khurram Shahzad said that if the trade deficit remains three percent of GDP, then it is not a matter of concern, because for growth and consumption in the economy, imports have to be done, but if it starts increasing to four percent and more then this country Signs of danger to the economy.

Khurram Shahzad said that since drastic reforms could not be implemented in the country to improve the economy and increase local production, the trade deficit is widening due to imports. 

How will we meet the grain needs of the growing population?

 The world population today is 7.7 billion, by the end of this decade this figure will reach 11 billion. At the same time, the population of India is estimated to be up to 1.7 billion in the coming four decades.

In the coming times, the biggest challenge before the countries will be to raise food grains for such a large population.

In 1798, the economist Thomas Malthus said that the rate at which the population grows did not produce food grains, so food would always be less than the proportion of the population in the world.

According to Malthus, the speed of population growth is one to two, two to four, four to eight and then eight to sixteen, while the speed of food production is one to two, two to three, three to four and then four to five. That is, after a hundred years, there will be less grain to feed the population.

Malthus believed that natural calamities such as drought, disease, floods help in keeping the population under control so that the balance of population and grain production is maintained.


 
His assessment about population and food grains was always in the discussion but it never became true.

About two hundred years later, American Professor Christopher Barratt said in a speech at the United Nations that the biggest challenge before humans in the coming times would be to deal with the food crisis. Barratt warned that this would be a battle for survival as water, land and marine resources would be depleted.

The Green Revolution of the 1960s was an attempt to find an answer to this question, but it will not meet our grain needs in the future.

This week in the world, it was investigated whether we will be able to grow the necessary grains to feed everyone in the coming times. Is it not that fighting hunger will become the biggest challenge for us?

Focus to increase production

Andy Jarvis is director of Policy Analysis Research at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture in Colombia. This organization was formed in the 1960s when governments were worried about how to arrange food for the growing population.

To find the answer, scientists, governments and institutions decided that they would have to increase the yield. Along with changing the traditional methods of farming, scientists started looking for seeds of improved varieties by cross breeding. This effort was given the name of Green Revolution.

He says, "Our effort was not just to find large grains of grain. The Green Revolution gave us better varieties of crops and such plants could take the burden of bigger and more grains. Within ten years the production of cereals doubled. happened. This revolution saved millions of lives."

Dr. Norman Burlow was also awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970 for discovering improved varieties of seeds and increasing the yield of wheat. In areas like Punjab of India, farmers worked on the path shown by Norman Burlaw and increased the yield of the crop.

Dr. Norman Burlow

The result of the Green Revolution was that between 1950 and 1990, global grain production increased by 174 (seventy-four) percent, while the population increased by 110% during this period. According to a report by the World Bank's Development Research Group, between 1965 and 1973, the production of wheat in India alone increased by seven percent and that of paddy by 18 percent.

But the situation is no longer the same as before.

Andy says, "Times are changing and the situation is also. Due to climate change, it is becoming difficult to produce more. Here the population continues to grow and we will be able to use the land we have for farming in the coming times." Will not be able to grow food grains for the needs of 11 billion people."


 Andy says that it is not that we will have to face starvation but it cannot be said that the situation will not get worse.

Andy says, "The 2008 global food crisis was something like this. The movement in many parts of the world caused grain prices to rise and markets to falter. As a result, a large number of people in urban areas reached the brink of poverty, Violence and instability also increased in many countries.

Compared to the 1960s, the pressure of increasing population is greater than ever before and there is also a lack of suitable land and resources for farming. In such a situation, the challenge of increasing the production of food grains before us is more than ever.

Storage problem

Jane Embuko, born to a corn farmer in Kenya, says her family worked hard to grow more crops, but had to sell the entire crop because they could not store it. Later, he used to buy food grains from the market and thus fell into the vicious cycle of never ending poverty.

Jane Embuko is today Associate Professor of Horticulture at the University of Nairobi and her research topic is how and why grain is wasted before it reaches the dining table.

She says, “According to an estimate, 30 percent of food grains in the whole world is wasted. But you will find that in Europe and America, food is wasted at the level of consumption because consumers in developed countries have the resources and they can do it. are capable of."

But in places like Africa, a third of the grain is wasted before it reaches the market. For example, even if the production is good during the mango season, the farmer is forced to sell his crop at a low price or allows it to rot. Sometimes up to eighty percent of its crop is destroyed.


 Farmers need the facility of cold storage, but either its cost is high or due to lack of electricity in far flung areas, this arrangement is not possible.

Jane says, “We are forming groups of farmers so that they can collect their resources and adopt new ways to store, store and then save their crop. Later they can get a higher price for it in the market. To prevent wastage of crop For this, other things can also be made by processing it.

However, Jane says that it may not be possible to completely stop food waste around the world.

 

In the Sustainable Development Goal, the United Nations has set a goal for countries to halve food waste by 2030. If this target is achieved, then there will be a big increase in the quantity of food grains.

She says, "We need more food grains for the growing population. In the current situation, we think we can increase production. But this will not solve the problem. If we increase production and a large part of it is wasted, then this is will be like filling water in a pot with holes. For me, stopping the wastage of grains is like closing this hole, which is very important to deal with the coming food crisis."

 


 Using natural methods

Amanda Cavanaugh is a researcher at the University of Illinois, USA. His team is researching the natural process of photosynthesis in plants. In this process, plants make food by taking light from the sun, water from the ground and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Amanda is trying to make such changes in the seeds through genetic engineering so that the process of photosynthesis can be improved further.

She says that plants are able to use only 5 percent of the sunlight. And the reason for this is the enzyme Rubisco which helps plants to absorb carbon dioxide.

Amanda says, "You can say that we are alive because of Rubisco. Whatever carbon we have in our body has passed through the enzyme Rubisco in some form or the other. It is the most important enzyme in the world. In 20% of the cases, the plant cell replaces carbon dioxide with an oxygen molecule, and a different process starts in it."

The job of Rubisco is to collect the right things and put them to the work of cooking. If it chooses the wrong molecule instead of carbon dioxide, oxygen, then the plant has to get rid of it and energy is spent in it.


 Amanda says, "Our research says that in this process, 30 to 50 percent of the plant's energy is wasted every day, which could have been used for cooking. This could have increased grain production."

Amanda's team has found a way through genetic engineering that Rubisco can do this work by spending less energy.

She says, "In recent research, we have found that this change improves the process of photosynthesis by up to 40 percent and plants grow more than before."

His team is now preparing to test it on cowpea crop. It is widely cultivated in the areas around the Sahara Desert in Africa.

The Green Revolution helped to increase the yield of crops and now with the help of genetic engineering, scientists are trying to improve it further. Amanda hopes that new discoveries will continue and a solution to the food crisis will be found.

 Need to preserve diversity

Doctor Debal Dev, who lives in West Bengal, is a seed protector and farmer. He believes that the Green Revolution helped to increase production, but he also says that choosing one or two improved varieties of seeds can have some very bad consequences.

He explains, "Seeds used to be the resource that everyone had access to, but from the 1960s onwards, a huge seed business started. Companies started researching seeds and then they started selling seeds."

As of today, only three companies account for 60% of the global seed trade. Debal believes that the monopoly of companies in the seed market is a warning bell.

Debal says, “You can see that there were one lakh ten thousand varieties of paddy in India and farmers used to transact it among themselves. But today farmers are buying seeds from only a few companies and due to this many varieties of paddy have disappeared. Now only seven thousand varieties of paddy are left.

But what is the sign of the extinction of rice varieties?

Debal is concerned that the genetic diversity of rice is being lost and that there may be a variety in it that has a special trait.

He says, "In a remote village I came to know that a special variety of paddy is fed to a woman during pregnancy and after delivery. I collected its seeds and planted it in my field. Later I came to know that it contains iron. It's in huge quantities."

After this he collected seeds of different varieties and started cultivating them. So far he has collected 1,460 varieties of paddy seeds. All these seeds have different properties.

They say that some varieties can withstand drought, some can grow in floods and some have the ability to survive insects or diseases. But the question is, what will help in arranging food for the growing population? 

Debal says, “There are many such areas which agronomists call marginal farms. These are drought-prone, flood-prone or coastal areas where salt water is stored. This is 24 percent of the total arable land in India. And talk about genetic engineering but till now we have not been able to prepare any such advanced variety of seed which can grow in salt water.But traditionally we have varieties which can give crop in such environment also. "

This means that the places which have not been cultivated till now due to natural reasons, can be cultivated with the help of traditional seeds in those places.

These seeds can free us from another big worry, says Debal. Relying on one or two varieties has its own dangers; if a disease affects the crop, the consequences can be dire.

"The best example of this is the Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s, also known as the Great Famine. At that time only one variety of potato was grown in Ireland," says Debal.

The main food crop of Ireland is the potato. In 1845, only one variety of potato was cultivated here. It did not have immunity against the disease called late blight. This year, fifty percent of the potato crop was ruined here and after that the crop was destroyed for a few years in a row. As a result, there was a severe famine here.

If more than one variety of potato was cultivated here, then maybe one would have the power to fight this disease and the situation would not be so bad.

Debal says that preserving seed varieties is the best way to avoid bad times.

Debal says, "Traditional varieties are the best and only solution for us. These are the varieties that are capable of providing food to the population of the whole world. These are the varieties that have been feeding people for the last hundreds of years."

Coming back to our question - will we be able to grow the necessary food grains to feed the growing population?

 

Relying on only one option would be insufficient. For this we need to use all the measures so that on one hand the production of food grains is increased and on the other hand its wastage should be reduced and those lands which are lying idle today should be brought under cultivation.

 

At the same time, we also have to take care that our crops are not only disease resistant but they can fight climate change and can also grow in difficult conditions like drought and flood.

It cannot be denied that the market will also try to meet the demand for food grains. In such a situation, for food grains to be accessible and its prices low, governments, scientists and organizations will need to start a new revolution together. However, all the experts we spoke to believe that there is little political will for this.