In Pictures: How Jallianwala Bagh Martyrs Memorial Looks After Repairs?

 A picture of PM Modi paying tribute at Jallianwala Bagh

1650 bullets and 379 corpses. Both these figures are of Jallianwala Bagh. 1650 bullets were fired by the British officer General Dyer and 379 Indians were killed.

This was an incident that exposed the cruel and oppressive side of British rule to the world 102 years ago.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi will dedicate to the nation the reconstructed memorial of Jallianwala Bagh memorial built in memory of this incident on the coming Saturday.

 Dyer and his soldiers had entered Jallianwala Bagh through this route

It has been told by the Press Information Bureau that in the process of reconstruction, work has been done on long-standing and under-utilized buildings so that they can be used once.

 Working in this direction, four museum galleries have been constructed in the complex which depict the historical significance of various events taking place in the erstwhile Punjab.

3D and projection technology will show why

Along with this, efforts will be made to present these events with the help of 3D, projection mapping, art, sculpture etc.

PIB has told that presentations will be given through audio-visual medium to make the world aware of the history of this period.

Along with this, efforts will be made to present these events with the help of 3D, projection mapping, art, sculpture etc.

 3D and projection technology will show why

PIB has told that presentations will be given through audio-visual medium to make the world aware of the history of this period.

Along with this, efforts will be made to present these events with the help of 3D, projection mapping, art, sculpture etc.


Image Source, PIB INDIA

It tells the historical importance of the events of that period and their importance.

Historian Harjeshwar Pal Singh had told in an article published on the BBC how and under what circumstances General Dyer was sent to Amritsar.

She Wrote

On 13th April, it was around 4.30 pm, General Dyer ordered to open fire on about 25 to 30 thousand people present in Jallianwala Bagh.

 Firing point of Jallianwala Bagh from where Dyer's soldiers opened fire on unarmed people

That too without any prior warning. This firing continued for about ten minutes without stopping for a second. After the orders of General Dyer, the soldiers fired about 1650 rounds of bullets.

The shooters were tired of firing bullets and 379 living people had become zombies. (Unofficially it is said that about a thousand people died.

 इमGalleries built in Jallianwala Bagh

General Dyer was born in India

Very few people know that General Dyer, the British officer who opened fire on unarmed people, was born in India itself.

Singh says in his article, "Dyer was born in India and his father worked as a brewer. Dyer knew both Urdu and Hindustani very well.

His people knew Dyer very well but he did not have a very good reputation among his superiors.

Dyer is named in history as the butcher of Amritsar and is considered not only by nationalists but also by imperialists. His ruthless act is seen as an exception to the British presence in India."

Machine gun use

There was a worldwide reaction to this incident that happened in Jallianwala Bagh. It was a reaction that exposed the brutal and oppressive face of the British Raj.

Singh writes, "The official Hunter Commission inquiry and the unofficial Congress investigation found that General Dyer was the only person of his kind to have such thinking and carried out this thinking.


Bullet Mark on Walls

In front of the Hunter Commission, Dyer admitted that he had used machine guns on the people and that there was a narrow road leading to the garden and the soldiers were ordered to fire wherever they saw the largest number of people.

When the firing stopped, there was neither a medical system for the injured nor the last rites of the dead bodies. He was widely revered as the "saviour of the British Empire".

 This brutal mass murder by a British officer personally was the first incident in itself. Violence, brutality and political oppression was not the first time nor was it an exception in the British Raj, but it was a different level of cruelty in itself."


How did the underworld dominate Mumbai?

 There was a time when a goon named Sher Khan Pathan used to collect weeks from the porters in Mazgaon docks of Bombay. Whoever refused to give Hafta, his henchmen used to beat him badly.

Haji Mastan, who was working in the dock, used to see this sight every day. He did not understand how an outsider could come inside the dock and extort money from the porters by force only.

Haji Mastan made up his mind to confront Sher Khan. The next Friday, when Sher Khan came to collect the Haftar with his goons, he found 10 people missing from the long line of porters.

Before he could understand anything, Mastan and his 10 companions attacked Sher Khan and his four henchmen.

Despite Sher Khan's secrets and Rampuri knives, Mastan and his four companions overpowered him and the bloodied Sher Khan along with his companions had to flee to save his life.

This incident not only made Haji Mastan the leader of the porters, but from here the 'Mastan Legend' started.

 This scene was shot exactly in 1975 by Yash Chopra on Amitabh Bachchan in his released film Deewar.

 In his recently published autobiography 'A Rude Life', noted journalist Veer Sanghvi writes, "Amitabh Bachchan's character in the film Deewar was largely based on the life of Haji Mastan. He told me that only the 786 numbered badge had a true story. Not there."


Sanghvi explains, "Mustan later acted in a film on his life by comedian Mukri. The film portrayed the glamorized side of his life. In the film, Mastan used to hide his falling hair. wore a wig of dark hair."

Mastan joined hands with Karim Lala and Varadarajan Mudaliar.

Mastan had realized long ago that it was not just money that was needed to be powerful in a city like Bombay.

In the famous book 'Dongri to Mumbai Six Decades of the Mumbai Mafia' on Mumbai's underworld, S. Hussain Zaidi writes, "Mustan needed muscle power to establish his empire in Mumbai. In search of this, he joined hands with Karim Lala and Vardarajan Mudaliar, two famous dons of the city."

In the year 1956, Haji Mastan came in contact with Daman's Don Sukur Narayan Bakhia. Soon both of them became partners and they divided some areas among themselves. The Bombay port was the area of ​​Mastan and the Daman port became the area of ​​Bakhia.

Hussain Zaidi writes, "Smuggled goods brought from Dubai used to land in Daman while goods brought from Aden were unloaded in Bombay. Mastan was responsible for monitoring Bakhia's goods."

 Karim Lala

Haji Mastan hired Yusuf Patel to get him killed

Mastan started living in a bungalow on Sofia College Lane between Warden Road and Pedder Road.

Veer Sanghvi writes, "I went to interview Haji Mastan in the year 1979. An old truck used to be parked in his garden. The story about him was famous that it was the same truck that Mastan used to deliver his first Contraband. I once asked Mastan about this story but he denied it. But anyone in his place would have denied it."

Veer Sanghvi also mentions his meeting with Yusuf Patel, another person from the Bombay underworld.

He writes, "Joseph had a habit of moving his legs. When he did this, his shins were visible. That's when I found out that he used to wear pajamas under his pants. I have seen someone under the pants till today." Didn't see him wearing pajamas. Once I convinced him to remember some old things."

Sanghvi writes, "He himself told me that once Haji Mastan had given betel leaves to Karim Lala's men to get him killed. He was walking on the road when two men shot him and he thought him dead. Kar had fled. But he was not dead. He was taken to the hospital and he survived."

Haji Mastan and Karim Lala arrested for murder

Hussain Zaidi has also mentioned this incident in his book.

He writes, "The first supari in the history of Mumbai mafia was given by Haji Mastan to Yusuf Patel, who had once worked with him for 10,000 rupees in 1969. This work was entrusted to two operatives of Pashtun origin of Karim Lala. They chose a place near Minara Masjid to attack Patel."

“The duo opened fire on Yusuf Patel in a crowded area near the mosque during the month of Ramzan. Patel fell to the ground and his bodyguard jumped on him to save him. The killers tried to escape but the crowd present there. caught him and handed him over to the police. Yusuf Patel was hit by two bullets in his arm but his bodyguard was killed. That day was November 22, 1969."

Reconciliation between Haji Mastan and Yusuf Patel

When Veer Sanghvi asked Haji Mastan about this incident, he accepted that it is true.

Sanghvi writes, "Mastan told me that Yusuf had cheated him in one case. No one could have survived by betraying Haji Mastan."

"When I was told that Patel was dead, I was very satisfied. But later when I came to know that Yusuf Patel had survived, I took it as a divine sign. If Allah did not want Yusuf to die now, then I have to respect his wish. Haji Mastan and Yusuf Patel became friends again after a few days."

Haji Mastan had good relations with many Bollywood celebrities

Rukhsana Sultan and Haji Mastan meeting

Haji Mastan always wore white clothes. His companions believed that this enhances his personality.

Veer Sanghvi writes, "Once upon a time, Rukhsana Sultan, a Congress leader, Sanjay Gandhi's friend and actress Amrita Singh's mother, told me an anecdote about meeting Haji Mastan for the first time. She was in the habit of using cami soap. Didn't get it in India. She used to buy it from smugglers."

"Once she parked her car in a crowded market in Bombay and went to buy soap. She could not find that soap anywhere. Everyone said that the supply of this soap is not coming these days. When she returned to her car When she returned, there was a crowd of people.

"As she went closer, she saw a portion of the back seat of her car was littered with hundreds of Cami's soaps. A man dressed in white stood next to his car. He first smiled and then introduced himself and said, I am called Haji Mastan.

 Rukhsana Sultan

Varadarajan Mudaliar's penetration among common people

While Haji Mastan was trying to establish his foothold in the Bombay underworld, Varadarajan, another coolie, was trying to earn a living at the Mudaliar Victoria Terminus station.

Mudaliar was born in the city of Vellore, Tamil Nadu. He had not completed his education but he was the only person in his family who could read and write English and Tamil.

Prominent Mumbai crime reporter Pradeep Shinde believed that "the men of Varda were faster than the local administration in making the common people the citizens of Bombay, providing them with ration cards, illegal electricity and water and this was the secret of their power." ''

"His power was so much that the common man used to work for him blindly. To help the people coming from Tamil Nadu, Varadarajan had engaged two of his most trusted people - Tomas Kurien aka Khaja Bhai and Mohinder Singh Vig whose other name was Bada Soma."

Haji Mastan and Vardarajan Mudaliar meeting

Haji Mastan and Varadarajan Mudaliar were both from Tamil Nadu.

Hussain Zaidi narrates an anecdote, "Once, Varda was arrested by the police for stealing an antenna from the Customs Dock area. The police asked him to tell them the place where he had kept the stolen goods, or else they would be theirs. Will use third degree against him."

"Varda was thinking in the Azad Maidan lockup what to do when a man holding a 555 cigarette in his fingers came to the jail teachers and he slowly said to them in Tamil 'Vanakkam Thalaivar'. Varda was stunned to hear this. The word 'Thalaivar' is used for 'chief' in Tamil."

"No one had spoken to Varda with such respect before. This person was Haji Mastan."

"Mustan said to Varadarajan, you give them back the antenna. I will make sure you make more money than this. Vardarajan at first refused. But Mastan told him - I am making an offer to you which no intelligent person can refuse." Can't. Return the antenna and be my partner in the gold business."

"Varda asked him what would it benefit you? Mastan replied - I want to use your muscle power. Some of the policemen who witnessed this scene never forgot how a man dressed in a suit and polished shoes had shook hands with a man wearing an ugly-looking white vest, vesti (lungi) and slippers."

 Mastan, Karim Lala and Varda

After leaving the jail, Mastan started using Varda in his work. Varadarajan knew the pulse of the people. He was always present at his house to listen to the problems of the people. Being a religious person, he started spending a lot of money on Ganesh pandal outside Matunga station.

Gradually, according to his status, the size of the pandals also started increasing. Many films were also made on Varda such as Nayakan, Dayavan and Agneepath. Amitabh Bachchan was shown imitating Varda's voice in Agneepath.

On the other hand, the kingdom of Mastan was also spreading rapidly.

Hussain Zaidi writes that "the silver sent by Mastan to foreign countries was so famous for its purity that it got the brand name of 'Mustan ki Chandi'. Mastan bought a luxurious bungalow and several large cars in Malabar Hill. Married to Sabiha Bi from whom he had three daughters Kamrunnisa, Mahrunnisa and Shamshad."

"By the 1970s, a formidable nexus of the muscle power of Haji Mastan in south and west Bombay, Vardarajan Mudaliar in central Bombay and Karim Lala emerged."

 Haji Mastan

Mastan intervened in the gang war

Haji Mastan was first arrested in 1974 and again in 1975 during the Emergency. After his release from jail, Mastan left smuggling and engaged himself in the real estate business.

On the other hand, the officer of the Bombay Police, Yadavrao Pawar, took the initiative to drive Varadarajan away from Bombay. He succeeded in that too. Varadarajan eventually had to leave Mumbai and come to Madras, where he died a few years later.

Gang war started between Alamzeb and Amirzada and Ibrahim family in the 80s. Haji Mastan tried to get reconciliation between these two.

Dawood Ibrahim and Alamzeb swore by placing their hands on the Quran that now there would be no violence between them but the very next day both the gangs started firing at each other in broad daylight.

No one had any regard for the promise given to Haji Mastan. Clearly, Mastan's influence was now on the decline. Later Dawood Ibrahim left India and made his hideout in Dubai and you know the story ahead.

 Haji Mastan

Don took up the business of builder

In films based on the underworld, it is often shown that the don is extorting money from the house builders. But in real life, the don became the builder.

Veer Sanghvi writes, "Mustan and Yusuf Patel were not joking when they said that real estate business is more profitable than smuggling business. This was because of the Bombay Rent Act which made fun of private property. The owner and the tenant were put on the same platform."

"Suppose you have a flat, you have rented it out. If you want the tenant to vacate your flat, you have to prove in court that you need more than your tenant needs. Tenants always argue will give that he does not have the means to go elsewhere."

Migration abroad under police pressure

As a result, the decline of central Mumbai started. Landlords stopped taking care of their homes.

Clever tenants started tearing their flats into pieces and renting them out again. Here the underworld started buying such houses from the landlords at low prices. He would then ask the tenants to leave the flat. Those who refused to do so would have to face the consequences.

Fearing these don, the tenants would vacate the flat and then don would build new houses there and sell them at high prices. The result was that in this type of real estate business, the gangsters of the underworld started earning more money than smuggling.

In the 80s, when the police pressure on these people started increasing, many of them started moving abroad. From there too he did not leave the work of the underworld, but his story never again.




Why did Gavaskar advise Virat Kohli to talk to Tendulkar?

 In the Leeds Test, Virat Kohli's decision to bat first after winning the toss brought a mountain of difficulties for Team India.

Joe Root's bowlers wrapped India cheaply due to the 17 degree temperature, cloudy skies and moisture present in the wicket.

The Indian team could not even play the full fifty overs in the first innings and was reduced to just 78 runs. Nine batsmen did not even reach the tens. Rohit Sharma scored 19 and Ajinkya Rahane scored 18 runs. Captain Virat Kohli became the victim of England fast bowler James Anderson for the seventh time in Test cricket by scoring only seven runs. Seeing the loss of wickets in the same way, former captain Sunil Gavaskar, who was commentating the match, also said that Virat Kohli should call Sachin Tendulkar.

Virat Kohli's form can be gauged from the fact that his last century came against Bangladesh in the year 2019 in Kolkata when he scored 136 runs.

Now, in all the three formats of cricket, including the matches played in T20, ODI and Test cricket, there have been about 50 innings when he did not score a century.

I don't know my mistake

Madan Lal, former India all-rounder, selector and coach on Sunil Gavaskar's Virat Kohli taking advice from Sachin Tendulkar, says, "Sometimes a batsman does not realize his weakness or mistake, but others do. He Sachin can take advice from Tendulkar, but he will have to solve this problem himself because he has to go to play in the field.

 Madan Lal is also surprised by the fact that Virat Kohli after winning the toss decided to bat first. Either he missed the wicket or he was confident in his batting that by playing first he would score 250-300 runs and put pressure on England, but it did not happen. It has been seen in Leeds that teams prefer to field first after winning the toss.

Well, it depends on Virat Kohli how he adjusts to the current conditions. One very important thing is also that the ball is being bowled very well to him, any batsman can get out on it. Anderson is the best bowler in the world, in the battle going on between him and Virat Kohli, only Anderson has won so far.

Influence in mindset

Regarding this issue, former India batsman and selector Ashok Malhotra says, "The bigger thing than worrying about Virat Kohli is that there has been a difference in his mentality. His bat is not getting more runs while he is getting quicker. He has a habit of scoring centuries. The kind of image he has created, the pressure is coming on him. Under pressure, he tries to play fast and that is not possible in England."

If Ashok Malhotra is to be believed, ultimately it is for Virat to play, whether he goes to Sachin or Ravi Shastri, but he has to control his mindset. Playing with too much anger or enthusiasm only causes damage.

Apart from losing the final of the World Test Championship, when India continues to win under the captaincy of Virat Kohli, what is the pressure on them? In response to this, Ashok Malhotra says, "For two years, he did not score a century. His run average is falling. Everyone has seen him score a century in every third and fourth match, the pressure is building on him due to not scoring."

 Regarding the technical deficiency in Virat Kohli, Ashok Malhotra says, "He has to stay on the wicket. The way he is getting caught at slips again and again, it seems that he is playing the ball away from his body. He He can control himself. In trying to play early, his bat is going away from the body. He will have to wait and play for a while.

Kohli's weakness

So has the whole world caught the weakness of those who are not scoring centuries from Virat? Regarding this, Ashok Malhotra says, "The whole world has not caught his weakness. He is just not scoring runs in England. In England's heavy weather, the ball swings, which has to be played with eyes down. Can't play with bat there. "

Apart from Madan Lal and Ashok Malhotra, cricket critic Ayaz Memon also believes that Sunil Gavaskar has given the right advice to Virat Kohli to talk to Sachin Tendulkar on the phone.

Regarding the technical deficiency in Virat Kohli, Ashok Malhotra says, "He has to stay on the wicket. The way he is getting caught at slips again and again, it seems that he is playing the ball away from his body. He He can control himself. In trying to play early, his bat is going away from the body. He will have to wait and play for a while.

He said, "Virat Kohli is getting out, not once but continuously making the same mistake. It seems that there is a lack in his concentration or technique. This can happen with the biggest player. Sachin Tendulkar's For example, when he was getting out outside the off-stump in Australia, he thought that in the last Test match, neither drive nor play over cover. After that he scored a double century.

When a big batsman and that too a batsman like Virat Kohli, if he is getting out in the same style again and again, then he must talk to someone he considers his well-wisher, then improve his batting so that the middle order of the team is maintained. But can England be played without a cover drive?

Regarding this, Ayaz Memon believes, "There is no harm in putting a cover drive, but on which ball it is important is important. If the leg does not move, the form is light, which can be of the biggest player, if the lean patch comes, then the best player gets out quickly.

Ayaz Memon says, "Cheteshwar Pujara and Ajinkya Rahane are getting out just like Kohli is getting out. Rohit Sharma is losing wickets while hooking or pulling. Rishabh Pant is getting caught in the slip or gully. So Batting coach Vikram Rathor and chief coach Ravi Shastri also have the responsibility to work on the team.

 There is pressure on number one too


What is Sunil Gavaskar's concern about Virat Kohli because he is the captain and one of the best players in the world?


In response to this question, Ayaz Memon says, "Of course. If Virat Kohli as a captain does not move ahead by taking lessons from mistakes, then the morale of the team also starts falling, so Sunil Gavaskar has given the right advice to Virat Kohli."

Ayaz does not believe in any specific reason for the pressure on Kohli, but he says, "The anxiety or stress of performing well is felt by everyone. Novak Djokovic went to the Rio Olympics, but could not make the Golden Slam, lost in tennis although number one. So, there is pressure on those who are the best, but take this pressure in a huge positive form and convert it into good performance. He has done this in the year 2018.


Ayaz says, “It is okay that he has not scored a single century in any format for the last two years. But his form is not like 2014 when he was struggling, here he scored 42 runs in the first innings of the last match. It's not that Kohli's form has deteriorated at all, but somewhere he is losing his concentration. Sometimes a slight improvement in technique makes a big difference, so Gavaskar advised Virat to Sachin Told to take it."



Everything we know about the Kabul blast

 On Thursday, two massive explosions took place at Kabul's Hamid Karzai International Airport, with a large number of civilians present at the airport trying to get out of Taliban-owned Afghanistan.

At least 90 people have died in this accident and 150 people have been injured and this figure is increasing. US Defense Headquarters Pentagon has confirmed the deaths of 13 US soldiers, including 11 US Marines and Navy doctors.

On Wednesday itself, the US, Britain and Australia issued a warning to their citizens based in Kabul, asking them not to go towards the airport as there is a possibility of terrorist activity here. The Islamic State-Khorasan has claimed responsibility for the attack, which is the Afghanistan branch of the Islamic State group.

What we know so far

Two explosions took place outside Kabul airport. The first explosion took place at 6 pm (local time) near the Barron Hotel near the airport. British officials are staying in this hotel, who are looking after the work of transporting the people of Afghanistan to Britain safely.


After that the firing started. Meanwhile, the second explosion took place near the AB gate of the airport, which is one of the main gates of the airport. According to reports, the second blast took place near the canal where a large number of Afghans were waiting for their turn to enter the airport. When the explosion happened, some people were washed away in the water of the canal.


A US official says one of the attackers was wearing an explosives jacket and carried out the blast. Later, Islamic State also confirmed this and believed that the person wearing the explosive jacket was from their group.

Amidst the inputs of terrorist activities, recently the US and Britain had deployed their troops for security near the AB Gate.

 Will find the attackers - Biden

13 American soldiers have been killed in this attack. This has proved to be the biggest attack to harm the US in Afghanistan in the last decade.

On this attack, US President Joe Biden has said, "Whoever is behind the attack, we will find out and he will have to pay the price." We will neither forget nor forgive them. Terrorists can't stop Americans from doing our jobs. We will not stop our mission in Kabul and the work of getting people out of Afghanistan safely will continue. ''

At the same time, he also pointed out that the attackers could be one of the criminals who recently came out of the Taliban's prison opening.

According to the news agency Reuters, after the attack, America has accelerated the process of getting people out safely. The agency has given this information by quoting an American official who is currently present at Kabul Airport.

 Some countries stopped flights

Some countries have stopped flights being run to evacuate people from Afghanistan. Germany, the Netherlands and Canada had suspended their flights before the attack. Turkey had also announced to withdraw its troops stationed at Kabul Airport for the last six years. 

Who is Islamic State Khorasan who attacked Kabul airport?

 Islamic State fighters have been blamed for a number of deadly attacks in recent years, such as this photo after the 2019 attack on a wedding hall in Kabul 'ISIS-K' or to put it more broadly, 'Islamic State Khorasan Province' (ISKP) is a regional ally of the extremist organization which calls itself 'Islamic State'. It is active in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

It is considered the most dangerous and violent of all jihadist extremist organizations in Afghanistan.

The ISKP was established in January 2015 when the Islamic State was at its peak in Iraq and Syria.

This was when the US-led coalition forces did not defeat the self-proclaimed caliphate of the 'Islamic State'.

This organization recruits both Afghan and Pakistani jihadists.

Especially those who have left the Afghan Taliban who believe that their own organization is no longer as fanatical.

 ISIS-K has a base in Nangarhar, the eastern province of Afghanistan

How radical is this extremist organization?

The Khorasan branch of Islamic State has been blamed for some of the deadliest attacks in recent years.

It has targeted girls' schools, hospitals and even a maternity ward of the hospital.

Its fighters shot pregnant women and nurses in an attack on the maternity ward.

The 'ISIS-K' is not like the Taliban, which has limited its borders to Afghanistan.

The organization is part of the 'Islamic State' global network that aims to target Western, international and humanitarian targets, wherever they are.

Scene after the attack on Kabul airport

Where are they active?

ISIS-K has a base in Nangarhar, the eastern province of Afghanistan.

Drug trade and human trafficking between Pakistan and Afghanistan pass through it.

There was a time when Islamic State used to have about 3,000 fighters.

But it suffered heavy losses in encounters with the Taliban, Afghan security forces and US-led coalition forces.

Do they have any relation with Taliban?

To put it superficially, yes. These connections are through a third party and its name is Haqqani Network.

Researchers say there are strong connections between ISIS-K and the Haqqani network.

On this basis, he builds a close relationship with the Taliban.

The person to whom the Taliban has given the responsibility of security of Kabul is Khalil Haqqani.

The US has placed a $5 million bounty on Khalil Haqqani's head.


Al Qaeda congratulates on the capture of Taliban, what did it tell Muslims?

Dr. Sajjan Gohail of the Asia Pacific Foundation has been tracking extremist organizations in Afghanistan for years.

"ISIS-K, the Haqqani network and other extremist groups operating in Pakistan have had a partner role in several major attacks between 2019 and 2021," he says.

When the Taliban took control of Kabul on 15 August, a large number of prisoners were released from Pul-e-Charki Prison. Among them were extremists from Islamic State and al-Qaeda. These people are in large numbers.


But ISIS-K has deep differences with the Taliban. The ISIS-K alleges that the Taliban have chosen to negotiate peace in the expensive and luxurious hotels of Qatar's capital Doha, leaving the path of Jihad and Maidan-e-Jung.

Islamic State extremists are a major security challenge to the incoming Taliban regime.

The Taliban leadership and Western intelligence agencies will probably agree on this point.