Education is a never ending process. It starts with the birth of an individual and then goes on till his last day. Education makes a person a real human being. It is the very basis that alienates a duffer from learned. Today, it is regarded as an essential human virtue. It equips an individual with social, moral, cultural and spiritual aspects and thus makes life progressive, cultured and civilized. As P.O. Banerjee rightly pointed, “it is the development of the power of adaptation to an ever changing social environment.”
Concept of Education: Indian Views
1. According to Rig Veda, “Education is something which makes a man self-reliant and selfless.
2. According to Upanishads, “Education is that whose end product is salvation”.
3. The well-known Indian economist Kautilya says, “Education means training for the country and for the nation”.
4. The Indian philosopher Shankaracharya considers education as “the realization of self”.
5. Swami Vivekanand considers education as “the manifestation of divine perfection existing in man”.
6. According to Vedantic viewpoint, “the essence of man is spirituality. We need an education that quickens, that kindles the urge of spirituality inherent in every mind”.
7. According to Mahatma Gandhi, “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body, mind and spirit”.
8. Guru Nanak said, “Education is self-realization and service of the people”.
9. Aurobindo Ghosh puts forth his views on education as, “Helping the growing soul to draw out that is in itself”.
10. Rabindra Nath Tagore says, “Education means enabling the mind to find out that ultimate truth which emancipates us from the bondage of the dust and gives us the wealth; not of things but of inner light, not of power but of love, making this truth its own and gives expression to.”
11. According to Swami Dayanand, “Education is a means for character formation and righteous living”.
12. In the words of Jakir Hussain, “Education is the process of the individual mind” getting to its full possible development. It is a long school which lasts a lifetime.
13. In the words of University Education Commission Report, “Education to the Indian traditions, is not merely a means of earning a living; nor it is only a nursery of thought or a school for citizenship. It is initiation into the life of spirit, a training of human soul in the pursuit of truth and the practice of virtue. It is a second birth.
Concept of Education: The World Views
The concept of education as given by a few popular Western thinkers is given below:
1. Plato’s view: “Education is the capacity to feel pleasure and pain at the right moment. It develops in the body and in the soul of the pupil all the beauty and all the perfection of which he is capable of”.
2. According to Aristotle, ”Education is the creation of a sound mind in a sound body..It develops man’s faculty, especially his mind, so that he may be able to enjoy the contemplation of supreme truth, goodness and beauty in which perfect happiness essentially exists”.
3. Socrates said, “Education means the bringing out of the ideas of universal validity which are latent in the minds of every man”.
4. In the words of Comenfus, “All who are born as human beings, need education because they are destined to be real men, not wild beasts, dull animals and clumps of wood”.
5. According to Benazir Bhutto, “Education is like polio drop. You cannot get its benefit almost instantly”.
6. Thompson said, “Education is the influence of environment on the individual with the view to producing a permanent change in his habits of behavior, of thought and of attitude”.
7. Nelson Mandela said, “ Education is the most important weapon which you can use to change the world”.
8. According to Kofi Annan, “Knowledge is power, information is liberating. Education is the premise of progress, in every society, in every family.”